Harvard Researchers Discover Link between Climate Change and Ozone Depletion; Skin cancer now on the list of climate change impacts

Harvard Study Links Climate Change and Cancer

Harvard Professor of Atmospheric Chemistry, James G. Anderson, and his team of researchers have studied the ozone layer and climate for more than 25 years. However, their most recent discovery reveals an unexpected, and disturbing, link between climate change and human health: Climate change contributes to ozone loss, increasing the risk of skin cancer across the globe.
 

Climate Change, Clouds, and Cancer

Anderson et al.’s paper, published in the journal Science on July 26, describes how thunderstorms can push water vapor much higher into the stratosphere than previously thought, that this water vapor causes stable chlorine and bromine compounds to breakdown into ozone-destroying free radicals. Further, the increased frequency and intensity of these storms due to climate change means that we will be exposed to more UV radiation. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the US – there are 1 million new cases each year, and the rate is growing. More UV radiation as a result of climate change would push this number even higher.

Ozone depletion

Atmospheric layers

Reproduced from NC State University

The relationship between ozone loss and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other chlorine and bromine containing compounds is well established. Sunlight causes these compounds to break down and release chlorine or bromine free radicals, which then catalyze the conversion of ozone (O3) into oxygen (O2). Less well known is that the presence of water vapor and higher temperatures also contribute to the breakdown of chlorine and bromine compounds, thus increasing the rate of ozone loss. Higher temperatures and the greater availability of water vapor in the stratosphere means that ozone is destroyed faster.

Climate change impact

Storm clouds have the potential to increase water vapor concentrations at lower ozone-layer altitudes – a process Anderson refers to as “convective injection.” This is already in occurrence, as Anderson notes in this Harvard Gazette article, and such storms don’t need to be unusually large. It is further anticipated that climate change will increase both the frequency and intensity of such storms, resulting in more water vapor being pushed further into the ozone layer, and more often.

 
The bottom line: Climate change has one more way to damage human health than previously thought (as though the list weren’t long enough already). So remember, wear sunscreen, do what you can to reduce global warming, and let others know if you found this post useful. Nobody likes cancer.
 
 
Mey Akashah
 

Mey Akashah’s Harvard doctoral dissertation uploaded to SlideShare and WordPress

Mey Akashah’s Harvard thesis online at Slideshare and WordPress 

Mey Akashah Harvard thesis front page

Mey Akashah’s Harvard School of Public Health doctoral dissertation, Fish Consumption, Mercury Intake, and the Associated Risks to the Kuwaiti Population, can now be found online at Mey’s Slideshare page and the Publication page of her blog.

 

Topic and background

Mey’s dissertation addresses health risks factors associated with mercury intake as a consequence of fish consumption among the Kuwaiti population.  Mercury is neurotoxic, and some studies have shown that it may also contribute to cardiovascular disease (Harada 1995Grandjean 1998). As Kuwaitis eat more fish than many other nationalities, it is important to better understand how much fish Kuwaitis consume, how much mercury is in the fish being eaten, and the physiological factors affecting how much mercury is absorbed into the body. The three papers in the dissertation address each of these areas, individually.

Overview

The first paper, “Fish Consumption among Kuwaiti Nationals,” addresses the consumption patterns of the Kuwait population, including the types of fish eaten, how frequently they are consumed, and average consumption among various age, sex, and ethnic groups. “Human Health Risks from Mercury in Fish” investigates the potential health effects to the Kuwaiti population as a result of current fish consumption patterns. The third paper, “Fish Consumption as a Determinant of Hair Mercury Levels among Kuwaiti Nationals,” relates this consumption to overall body burden of mercury, allowing a better understanding of the relationship between intake of fish and mercury levels found in hair samples.

 

Purpose

It is hoped that the dissertation’s three studies will inform future work in the areas of risk reduction and risk management, so that more accurate risk assessments may be undertaken in the future. The research may also be used to create fish consumption advisories for the Kuwaiti population and other countries in the region.

 

Access, download, and share

To access or download a pdf copy of Mey Akashah’s Harvard School of Public Health doctoral thesis, please visit Mey at Slideshare or the Publication page of her blog – and please share and/or like the page if you believe it is important and useful!

 

– Mey Akashah

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